Tyldesley's Oral Medicine Free Download Pdf
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Notwithstanding these minor observations, the text is well written, well illustrated, and well laid out, and the 5th edition represents a significant improvement on what has already become a popular and standard oral medicine text.
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Vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency, a nutritional deficiency disease caused by insufficient intake or malabsorption of vitamin B12, could cause a wide range of systemic diseases and oral lesions, resulting in devastating clinical and socioeconomic consequences . The clinical manifestations of VB12 deficiency are diverse and non-specific. Systemic diseases include megaloblastic anemia , neurological symptoms , skin and mucous membrane pigmentation , and digestive system symptoms . The oral manifestations include atrophic glossitis, recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) , burning mouth symptom, diffuse erythematous macules, opportunistic conditions as candidiasis, and angular cheilitis [6,7,8]. Due to the rapid renewal, the oral mucosal cells are susceptible to the effects of DNA synthesis disorders related to VB12 deficiency, and oral damage predates neurological symptoms [9,10,11]. Recently, some studies reported significant VB12 deficiency among symptomatic oral lichen planus patients . It is challenging for oral medicine specialists to make an early diagnosis for VB12 deficiency. 1e1e36bf2d